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Black Hogg: The Black Hogg on the Block

Black Hogg: The Black Hogg on the Block

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The Black Hogg on the Block

Black Hogg recently opened its doors on Sunset Boulevard in the likes of the Silverlake district of Los Angeles. My friend JT introduced me to Black Hogg, exclaiming it was one of his new favorite places. The minimalistic, hipster feel of Black Hogg brings in crowds of trendies, foodies, and adventurous eaters who long for Chef Park’s innovative, comfort food. Don’t forget to try the Pop Corn Bacon with Maple Crema and Wild Mushrooms on a Brioche Box!

Pork Stomach (Hog Maws)

I must admit. When I shopped at the China-town grocer and stumbled upon the package of “meat” that said, “pork stomach,” I got nauseous. I stood there looking at the package for about three minutes before I motivated myself to pick it up, wrap my head around the idea, but I was committed to the food experiment, so I grabbed the protein.

Then I thought: ‘Where was I supposed to start with the recipe?’ I had no idea how to cook pork stomach… Is this even edible?–creeped into my mind.

I Googled “pork stomach recipe.” A few options popped up. Interestingly, for most of the pork stomach recipes, in parenthesis “hog maw” popped up. The search results read like this: pork stomach (hog maw). Hog maws? Shit! My daddy used to cook those when I was a kid, southern roots being from Mississippi. Hog maws, aka pork stomach, has been a soul food staple for as long as I can remember.

Granted, not all soul food connoisseurs eat hog maws. And most soul food lovers don’t even know what hog maws are. For the most part, hog maws are usually mixed with chitterlings or “chitlin’s” for short. Chitlin’s are pig intestines it tastes good, but smells very bad. People have strong opinions about chitterlings… They love them or hate them. No in-between. I, on the other hand, happen to love them.

Getting back to hog maws: as with any inexpensive meat, they have to boiled for at least one hour to soften them up. These hog maws were cooked for about an hour and a half because I do like to retain some chewiness. You can cook yours for at least two hours if you wish. I am always easy on salt and pepper because I’d rather under season it, where you can add more later, then over season it and the dish is ruined. Also, if you are cooking for others, they can season it to their taste, without losing the essence of the dish. Enjoy!


Hogg was born in Cherokee County, Texas. His parents, Joseph L. Hogg and Lucanda McMath had moved to Texas in late 1836. [1] [2] During the Civil War, his father served as a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army. Joseph Hogg died in 1862, and Lucanda died the following year. Hogg and his two brothers were raised by their sister, Frances. The family had little money, and Hogg received only a basic education before being asked to go to work. [1]

In 1866, Hogg went to Tuscaloosa, Alabama, to study. [2] Upon returning to Texas, he became a printer's devil at the Rusk Chronicle. In 1867, Hogg walked from East Texas to Cleburne, where he found a job with the Cleburne Chronicle. Soon after his arrival the building which housed the Cleburne Chronicle burned down, and Hogg returned to East Texas. For the next several years he worked as a farmhand and studied law. He later ran the Longview News and founded the Quitman News. [1]

In 1873, Hogg was named Justice of the Peace at Quitman. [1] The following year he married Sarah Ann Stinson. They had four children, William Clifford (1875), Ima (1882), Michael (1885), and Thomas Elijah (1887). Ima was named for the heroine of the poem The Fate of Marvin, written by Hogg's older brother Tom in 1873. [3] Although legend states that the Hoggs also had a daughter named Ura, that allegation is false. [3]

In 1876, he was defeated by John S. Griffith for a seat in the Texas legislature. [2] He returned to public service in 1878 when he was elected Wood County's attorney, and he went on to serve from 1880 to 1884 as Texas' seventh district's attorney. [1] [2]

Hogg was one of the men responsible for making Smith County a Democratic stronghold during the 1884 national elections, as he helped convince the black vote for the Democratic party. Although encouraged to run for a seat in the United States Congress, Hogg declined and practiced law in Tyler. [2]

Hogg was elected state Attorney General in 1886 with the platform of railroad regulation reform. [1] At that time, the state had the power to regulate the transportation industry, but existing laws were either unenforced or inadequate. Through "various legal maneuvers", Hogg forced the out-of-state corporations operating the railroads to establish operating offices in the state. [4] He also put an end to pooling by the railroads and suggested that the legislature propose a constitutional amendment to create the Railroad Commission of Texas. [4] In 1888 Hogg sued the rail companies for attempting to create a monopoly, among other charges. Hogg won, defeating the powerful rail baron Jay Gould and creating for himself a name in Texas politics.

Hogg also endeavored to rein in abuses by other large corporations. He tackled the "wildcat" insurance companies, forcing several of them to leave the state and requiring others to operate within the parameters of the law. [4] Under his guidance, Texas became the second state to pass a workable antitrust law. [4]

With the support of farmers, ranchers, and small merchants, Hogg won the election for Governor of Texas in 1890. At the same time, voters approved the constitutional amendment allowing for a Railroad Commission by a wide margin. [4] On April 3, 1891, the legislature overwhelmingly passed a bill to create the Railroad Commission. Hogg appointed the three members, with U.S. Senator John H. Reagan, creator of the Interstate Commerce Act, as chairman. [5] Hogg also named his old friend, Captain Bill McDonald, to succeed Samuel A. McMurry as the captain of Texas Rangers Company B, Frontier Battalion, a position that he retained until 1907. [6]

Hogg campaigned for a second term in 1892 on five principles: to uphold the state constitution, to support the Railroad Commission, to stop the railroads from issuing watered stocks, to regulate the issuance of county and municipal bonds, and to regulate alien land ownership. [7] When his opponent for the Democratic nomination, George Clark, realized that Hogg would likely win the nomination, Clark's supporters left the Democratic convention and went to a new location. There they formed a new party, the Jeffersonian Democrats, and nominated Clark for governor. Hogg was easily nominated as the Democratic candidate by the remaining delegates. [7]

The Republican Party endorsed Clark, and the Populist Party nominated lawyer Thomas Lewis Nugent. [8] Hogg won a plurality of the votes to gain a second term as governor, but it was the first time in state history that the winning Democratic candidate did not receive a majority of the votes. [7]

During his second term, Hogg endorsed three constitutional amendments. Voters defeated the proposals to charter state banks and to provide a pension for indigent Confederate veterans, but approved the amendment to allow for public election of the railroad commissioners. [9] [10] At his urging, the legislature passed a law allowing the Railroad Commission to fix rates based on fair valuation and to stop many of the practices the railroad companies had used to manipulate stocks. When the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the commission in Reagan v. Farmers Loan and Trust in 1894, this law helped them to be fully equipped to fight the power of the railroads. [9]

In April 1893, the legislature passed a law requiring that communities which issued bonds should also have a plan to collect sufficient taxes to pay the interest. Hogg's final campaign promise was fulfilled when the legislature passed the Perpetuities and Corporation Land Law, which required private corporations to sell all land they had held for speculative purposes within 15 years [9] The law was full of loopholes and did not have the effect that Hogg wanted. [10]

In 1894, Texas filed a lawsuit against John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company and its Texas subsidiary, the Waters-Pierce Oil Company of Missouri. Hogg and his attorney general argued that the companies were engaged in rebates, price fixing, consolidation, and other tactics prohibited by the state's 1889 antitrust act. The investigation resulted in a number of indictments, including one for Rockefeller. Hogg requested that Rockefeller be extradited from New York, but the New York governor refused, as Rockefeller had not fled from Texas. Rockefeller was never tried, but other employees of the company were found guilty. [11]

Hogg's term as governor ended in 1895, the same year his wife died. Although he was not wealthy when he left office, through his connections he became involved in land and oil deals and amassed a large fortune. [3]

He spoke on behalf of William Jennings Bryan in Tammany Hall in 1896 and 1900. Hogg also became interested in the idea of what became the Panama Canal having done well as an oil investor, Hogg had interest for a shipping route to open between Texas and South America, as well as between Texas and Asia. On April 19, 1900, he gave a speech in Waco, where he said the now legendary words: "Let us have Texas, the Empire State, (be) governed by the people, not Texas, the truckpatch, ruled by corporate lobbyists".

In 1901, Hogg founded the Texas Company, predecessor to Texaco, with Joseph S. Cullinan, John Warne Gates, and Arnold Schlaet. [12]


Like its close relative, the Asian steppe polecat (with which it was once thought to be conspecific), the black-footed ferret represents a more progressive form than the European polecat in the direction of carnivory. [2] The black-footed ferret's most likely ancestor was Mustela stromeri (from which the European and steppe polecats are also derived), which originated in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene. [11] Molecular evidence indicates that the steppe polecat and black-footed ferret diverged from M. stromeri between 500,000 and 2,000,000 years ago, perhaps in Beringia. The species appeared in the Great Basin and the Rockies by 750,000 years ago. The oldest recorded fossil find originates from Cathedral Cave, White Pine County, Nevada, and dates back to 750,000–950,000 years ago. [12] Prairie dog fossils have been found in six sites where ferrets are yielded, thus indicating that the association between the two species is an old one. [13] Anecdotal observations and 42% of examined fossil records indicated that any substantial colony of medium- to large-sized colonial ground squirrels, such as Richardson's ground squirrels, may provide a sufficient prey base and a source of burrows for black-footed ferrets. This suggests that the black-footed ferret and prairie dogs did not historically have an obligate predator-prey relationship. [12] The species has likely always been rare, and the modern black-footed ferret represents a relic population. A reported occurrence of the species is from a late Illinoian deposit in Clay County, Nebraska, and is further recorded from Sangamonian deposits in Nebraska and Medicine Hat. Fossils have also been found in Alaska dating from the Pleistocene. [13] [11]

The black-footed ferret has a long, slender body with black outlines on their feet, ears, parts of the face and its tail. The forehead is arched and broad, and the muzzle is short. It has few whiskers, and its ears are triangular, short, erect and broad at the base. The neck is long and the legs short and stout. The toes are armed with sharp, very slightly arched claws. The feet on both surfaces are covered in hair, even to the soles, thus concealing the claws. [14] It combines several physical features common in both members of the subgenus Gale (least, short-tailed and long-tailed weasels) and Putorius (European and steppe polecats). Its skull resembles that of polecats in its size, massiveness and the development of its ridges and depressions, though it is distinguished by the extreme degree of constriction behind the orbits where the width of the cranium is much less than that of the muzzle.

Although similar in size to polecats, its attenuate body, long neck, very short legs, slim tail, large orbicular ears and close-set pelage is much closer in conformation to weasels and stoats. [15] The dentition of the black-footed ferret closely resembles that of the European and steppe polecat, though the back lower molar is vestigial, with a hemispherical crown which is too small and weak to develop the little cusps which are more apparent in polecats. [15] It differs from the European polecat by the greater contrast between its dark limbs and pale body and the shorter length of its black tail-tip. In contrast, differences from the steppe polecat of Asia are slight, to the point where the two species were once thought to be conspecific. [13] The only noticeable differences between the black-footed ferret and the steppe polecat are the former's much shorter and coarser fur, larger ears, and longer post molar extension of the palate. [16]

Males measure 500–533 millimetres (19.7–21.0 in) in body length and 114–127 millimetres (4.5–5.0 in) in tail length, thus constituting 22–25% of its body length. Females are typically 10% smaller than males. [13] It weighs 650–1,400 grams (1.43–3.09 lb). [17] Captive-bred ferrets used for the reintroduction projects were found to be smaller than their wild counterparts, though these animals rapidly attained historical body sizes once released. [18]

The base color is pale yellowish or buffy above and below. The top of the head and sometimes the neck is clouded by dark-tipped hairs. The face is crossed by a broad band of sooty black, which includes the eyes. The feet, lower parts of the legs, the tip of the tail and the preputial region are sooty-black. The area midway between the front and back legs is marked by a large patch of dark umber-brown, which fades into the buffy surrounding parts. A small spot occurs over each eye, with a narrow band behind the black mask. The sides of the head and the ears are dirty-white in color. [16]

Territorial behavior Edit

The black-footed ferret is solitary, except when breeding or raising litters. [4] [5] It is nocturnal [4] [19] and primarily hunts for sleeping prairie dogs in their burrows. [20] It is most active above ground from dusk to midnight and 4 am to mid-morning. [7] Aboveground activity is greatest during late summer and early autumn when juveniles become independent. [7] Climate generally does not limit black-footed ferret activity, [5] [7] but it may remain inactive inside burrows for up to 6 days at a time during winter. [21]

Female black-footed ferrets have smaller home ranges than males. Home ranges of males may sometimes include the home ranges of several females. [5] Adult females usually occupy the same territory every year. A female that was tracked from December to March occupied 39.5 acres (16 ha). Her territory was overlapped by a resident male that occupied 337.5 acres (137 ha) during the same period. The average density of black-footed ferrets near Meeteetse, Wyoming, is estimated at one black-footed ferret to 148 acres (60 ha). As of 1985, 40 to 60 black-footed ferrets occupied a total of 6,178 to 7,413 acres (2,500 to 3,000 ha) of white-tailed prairie dog habitat. [4] From 1982 to 1984, the average year-round movement of 15 black-footed ferrets between white-tailed prairie dog colonies was 1.6 miles/night (2.5 km) (with a spread of 1.1 miles or 1.7 km). Movement of black-footed ferrets between prairie dog colonies is influenced by factors including breeding activity, season, sex, intraspecific territoriality, prey density, and expansion of home ranges with declining population density. [5] [22] Movements of black-footed ferrets have been shown to increase during the breeding season however, snow-tracking from December to March over a 4-year period near Meeteetse, Wyoming revealed that factors other than breeding were responsible for movement distances. [5]

Temperature is positively correlated with distance of black-footed ferret movement. [5] Snow-tracking from December to March over a 4-year period near Meeteetse, Wyoming, revealed that movement distances were shortest during winter and longest between February and April, when black-footed ferrets were breeding and white-tailed prairie dogs emerged from hibernation. Nightly movement distance of 170 black-footed ferrets averaged 0.87 miles (1.40 km) (range 0.001 to 6.91 miles (0.0016 to 11.1206 kilometres)). Nightly activity areas of black-footed ferrets ranged from 1 to 337.5 acres (0 to 137 ha)), and were larger from February to March (110.2 acres (45 ha)) than from December to January (33.6 acres (14 ha)). [5] Adult females establish activity areas based on access to food for rearing young. Males establish activity areas to maximize access to females, resulting in larger activity areas than those of females. [5]

Prey density may account for movement distances. Black-footed ferrets may travel up to 11 miles (18 km) to seek prey, suggesting that they will interchange freely among white-tailed prairie dog colonies that are less than 11 miles (18 km) apart. In areas of high prey density, black-footed ferret movements were nonlinear in character, probably to avoid predators. [5] From December to March over a 4-year study period, black-footed ferrets investigated 68 white-tailed prairie dog holes per 1 mile (1.6 km) of travel/night. Distance traveled between white-tailed prairie dog burrows from December to March averaged 74.2 feet (22.6 m) over 149 track routes. [5]

Reproduction and development Edit

The reproductive physiology of the black-footed ferret is similar to that of the European polecat and the steppe polecat. It is probably polygynous, based on data collected from home range sizes, skewed sex ratios, and sexual dimorphism. [5] [22] Mating occurs in February and March. [5] [21] When a male and female in estrus encounter each other, the male sniffs the genital region of the female, but does not mount her until after a few hours have elapsed, which is contrast to the more violent behavior displayed by the male European polecat. During copulation, the male grasps the female by the nape of the neck, with the copulatory tie lasting from 1.5 to 3.0 hours. [13] Unlike other mustelids, the black-footed ferret is a habitat specialist with low reproductive rates. [22] In captivity, gestation of black-footed ferrets lasts 42–45 days. Litter size ranges from one to five kits. [19] Kits are born in May and June [23] in prairie dog burrows. [4] Kits are altricial and are raised by their mother for several months after birth. Kits first emerge above ground in July, at 6 weeks old. [7] [22] [23] They are then separated into individual prairie dog burrows around their mother's burrow. [7] Kits reach adult weight and become independent several months following birth, from late August to October. [7] [22] Sexual maturity occurs at one year of age. [7]

Intercolony dispersal of juvenile black-footed ferrets occurs several months after birth, from early September to early November. Dispersal distances may be short or long. Near Meeteetse, Wyoming, 9 juvenile males and three juvenile females dispersed 1 to 4 mi (1.6 to 6.4 km) following litter breakup. Four juvenile females dispersed a short distance (<0.2 mi (0.32 km)), but remained on their natal area. [22]

Up to 90% of the black-footed ferret's diet is composed of prairie dogs. [6] [7] The remaining 10% of their diet is composed of small rodents, and Lagomorphs. [24] Their diet varies depending on geographic location. In western Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana, black-footed ferrets are historically associated with white-tailed prairie dogs and were forced to find alternative prey when white-tailed prairie dogs entered their four-month hibernation cycle. [19] In Wyoming, alternative prey items consumed during white-tailed prairie dog hibernation included voles (Microtus spp.) and mice (Peromyscus and Mus spp.) found near streams. In South Dakota, black-footed ferrets associate with black-tailed prairie dogs. Because black-tailed prairie dogs do not hibernate, little seasonal change in black-footed ferret diet is necessary. [5] [19]

In Mellette County, South Dakota, black-tailed prairie dog remains occurred in 91% of 82 black-footed ferret scats. Mouse remains occurred in 26% of scats. Mouse remains could not be identified to species however, deer mice, northern grasshopper mice, and house mice were captured in snap-trap surveys. Potential prey items included thirteen-lined ground squirrels, plains pocket gophers, mountain cottontails, upland sandpipers, horned larks, and western meadowlarks. [7]

Based on 86 black-footed ferret scats found near Meeteetse, Wyoming, 87% of their diet was composed of white-tailed prairie dogs. Other food items included deer mice, sagebrush voles, meadow voles, mountain cottontails, and white-tailed jackrabbits. Water is obtained through consumption of prey. [4]

A study published in 1983 modeling metabolizable energy requirements estimated that one adult female black-footed ferret and her litter require about 474 to 1,421 black-tailed prairie dogs per year or 412 to 1,236 white-tailed prairie dogs per year for sustenance. They concluded that this dietary requirement would require protection of 91 to 235 acres (37 to 95 ha) of black-tailed prairie dog habitat or 413 to 877 acres (167 to 355 ha) of white-tailed prairie dog habitat for each female black-footed ferret with a litter. [25]

The historical range of the black-footed ferret was closely correlated with, but not restricted to, the range of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). Its range extended from southern Alberta and southern Saskatchewan south to Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. [13] As of 2007 [update] , the only known wild black-footed ferret population was located on approximately 6,000 acres (2,400 hectares) in the western Big Horn Basin near Meeteetse, Wyoming. [4] [5] [6] [21] [22] Since 1990, black-footed ferrets have been reintroduced to the following sites: Shirley Basin, Wyoming UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge and Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, Montana Conata Basin/Badlands, Buffalo Gap National Grassland, and the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation in South Dakota Aubrey Valley, Arizona Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge and Wolf Creek in Colorado Coyote Basin, straddling Colorado and Utah, northern Chihuahua, Mexico, [23] and Grasslands National Park, Canada [26]

Historical habitats of the black-footed ferret included shortgrass prairie, mixed-grass prairie, desert grassland, shrub steppe, sagebrush steppe, [22] mountain grassland, and semi-arid grassland. [13] Black-footed ferrets use prairie dog burrows for raising young, avoiding predators, and thermal cover. [4] [7] Six black-footed ferret nests found near Mellette County, South Dakota, were lined with buffalo grass, prairie threeawn, sixweeks grass, and cheatgrass. High densities of prairie dog burrows provide the greatest amount of cover for black-footed ferrets. [4] [5] Black-tailed prairie dog colonies contain a greater burrow density per acre than white-tailed prairie dog colonies, and may be more suitable for the recovery of black-footed ferrets. [4] The type of prairie dog burrow may be important for occupancy by black-footed ferrets. Black-footed ferret litters near Meeteetse, Wyoming, were associated with mounded white-tailed prairie dog burrows, which are less common than non-mounded burrows. Mounded burrows contain multiple entrances and probably have a deep and extensive burrow system that protects kits. [4] However, black-footed ferrets used non-mounded prairie dog burrows (64%) more often than mounded burrows (30%) near Meeteetse, Wyoming. [5]

Primary causes of mortality include habitat loss, human-introduced diseases, and indirect poisoning from prairie dog control measures. [7] [19] [21] [23] Annual mortality of juvenile and adult black-footed ferrets over a 4-year period ranged from 59 to 83% (128 individuals) near Meeteetse, Wyoming. [22] During fall and winter, 50 to 70% of juveniles and older animals perish. [22] Average lifespan in the wild is probably only one year, but may be up to five years. Males have higher rates of mortality than females because of longer dispersal distances when they are most vulnerable to predators. [22]

Given an obligate dependence of black-footed ferrets on prairie dogs, black-footed ferrets are extremely vulnerable to prairie dog habitat loss. Habitat loss results from agriculture, livestock use, and other development. [23]

Black-footed ferrets are susceptible to numerous diseases. They are fatally susceptible to canine distemper virus, [13] [22] introduced by striped skunks, common raccoons, red foxes, coyotes, and American badgers. [21] A short-term vaccine for canine distemper is available for captive black-footed ferrets, but no protection is available for young born in the wild. Black-footed ferrets are also susceptible to rabies, tularemia, and human influenza. They can directly contract sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis), and epidemics in prairie dog towns may completely destroy the ferrets' prey base. [27]

Oil and natural gas exploration and extraction can have detrimental impacts on prairie dogs and black-footed ferrets. Seismic activity collapses prairie dog burrows. Other problems include potential leaks and spills, increased roads and fences, increased vehicle traffic and human presence, and an increased number of raptor perching sites on power poles. Traps set for coyotes, American mink, and other animals may harm black-footed ferrets. [6]

Native American tribes, including the Crow, Blackfoot, Sioux, Cheyenne, and Pawnee, used black-footed ferrets for religious rites and for food. [19] The species was not encountered during the Lewis and Clark Expedition, nor was it seen by Nuttall or Townsend, and it did not become known to modern science until it was first described in Jake Audubon and Bachman's Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America in 1851. [28]

It is with great pleasure that we introduce this handsome new species . [it] inhabits the wooded parts of the country to the Rocky Mountains, and perhaps is found beyond that range. When we consider the very rapid manner in which every expedition that has crossed the Rocky Mountains, has been pushed forward, we cannot wonder that many species have been entirely overlooked. The habits of this species resemble, as far as we have learned, those of [the European polecat]. It feeds on birds, small reptiles and animals, eggs, and various insects, and is a bold and cunning foe to the rabbits, hares, grouse, and other game of our western regions.

Decline Edit

For a time, the black-footed ferret was harvested for the fur trade, with the American Fur Company having received 86 ferret skins from Pratt, Chouteau, and Company of St. Louis in the late 1830s. During the early years of predator control, black-footed ferret carcasses were likely discarded, as their fur was of low value. This likely continued after the passing of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, for fear of reprisals. The large drop in black-footed ferret numbers began during the 1800s through to the 1900s, as prairie dog numbers declined because of control programs and the conversion of prairies to croplands.

Sylvatic plague, a disease caused by Yersinia pestis introduced into North America, also contributed to the prairie dog die-off, though ferret numbers declined proportionately more than their prey, thus indicating other factors may have been responsible. Plague was first detected in South Dakota in a coyote in 2004, and then in about 50,000 acres of prairie dogs on Pine Ridge Reservation in 2005. Thereafter 7,000 acres of prairie dog colonies were treated with insecticide (DeltaDust) and 1,000 acres of black-footed ferret habitat were prophylactically dusted in Conata Basin in 2006–2007. Nevertheless, plague was proven in ferrets in May 2008. Since then each year 12,000 acres of their Conata Basin habitat is dusted and about 50–150 ferrets are immunized with plague vaccine. [29] Ferrets are unlikely to persist through plague episodes unless there are management efforts that allow access to prey resources at a wider region or actions that could substantially reduce the plague transmission. [30] Implementing efforts to conserve large prairie dog landscapes and plague mitigation tools are very important in conserving the black-footed ferrets' population. [30]

Inbreeding depression may have also contributed to the decline, as studies on black-footed ferrets from Meeteetse, Wyoming revealed low levels of genetic variation. Canine distemper devastated the Meeteetse ferret population in 1985. A live virus vaccine originally made for domestic ferrets killed large numbers of black-footed ferrets, thus indicating that the species is especially susceptible to distemper. [17]

Reintroduction and conservation Edit

The black‐footed ferret experienced a recent population bottleneck in the wild followed by a more than 30-year recovery through ex situ breeding and then reintroduction into its native range. As such, this sole endemic North American ferret allows examining the impact of a severe genetic restriction on subsequent biological form and function, especially on reproductive traits and success. The black‐footed ferret was listed as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1967. Declared extinct in 1979, a residual wild population was discovered in Meeteetse, Wyoming, in 1981. This cohort eventually grew to 130 individuals and was then nearly extirpated by sylvatic plague, Yersinia pestis, and canine distemper virus, Canine morbillivirus, with eventually 18 animals remaining. These survivors were captured from 1985 to 1987 to serve as the foundation for the black‐footed ferret ex situ breeding program. Seven of those 18 animals produced offspring that survived and reproduced, and with currently living descendants, are the ancestors of all black‐footed ferrets now in the ex situ (about 320) and in situ (about 300) populations. [31]

The black-footed ferret is an example of a species that benefits from strong reproductive science. [32] A captive-breeding program was initiated in 1987, capturing 18 living individuals and using artificial insemination. This is one of the first examples of assisted reproduction contributing to conservation of an endangered species in nature. [32] The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, state and tribal agencies, private landowners, conservation groups, and North American zoos have actively reintroduced ferrets back into the wild since 1991. Beginning in Shirley Basin [33] in Eastern Wyoming, reintroduction expanded to Montana, 6 sites in South Dakota in 1994, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Saskatchewan, Canada and Chihuahua, Mexico. The Toronto Zoo has bred hundreds, most of which were released into the wild. [34] Several episodes of Zoo Diaries show aspects of the tightly controlled breeding. In May 2000, the Canadian Species at Risk Act listed the black-footed ferret as being an extirpated species in Canada. [35] A population of 35 animals was released into Grasslands National Park in southern Saskatchewan on October 2, 2009, [36] and a litter of newborn kits was observed in July 2010. [37] Reintroduction sites have experienced multiple years of reproduction from released individuals.

The black-footed ferret was first listed as endangered in 1967 under the Endangered Species Preservation Act, and was re-listed on January 4, 1974, under the Endangered Species Act [ inconsistent ] . In September 2006, South Dakota's ferret population was estimated to be around 420, with 250 (100 breeding adults consisting of 67 females and 33 males) in Eagle Butte, South Dakota, which is 100,000 acres, less than 3% of the public grasslands in South Dakota, 70 miles east of Rapid City, South Dakota, in the Buffalo Gap National Grassland bordering Badlands National Park, 130 ferrets northeast of Eagle Butte, SD, on Cheyenne River Indian Reservation, and about 40 ferrets on the Rosebud Indian Reservation. [38] Arizona's Aubrey Valley ferret population was well over 100 and a second reintroduction site with around 50 animals is used. An August 2007 report in the journal Science counted a population of 223 in one area of Wyoming (the original number of reintroduced ferrets, most of which died, was 228), and an annual growth rate of 35% from 2003 to 2006 was estimated. [39] [40] This rate of recovery is much faster than for many endangered species, and the ferret seems to have prevailed over the previous problems of disease and prey shortage that hampered its improvement. [40] As of 2007 [update] , the total wild population of black-footed ferrets in the U.S. was well over 650 individuals, plus 250 in captivity. In 2008, the IUCN reclassified the species as "globally endangered", a substantial improvement since the 1996 assessment, when it was considered extinct in the wild, as the species was indeed only surviving in captivity [ inconsistent ] .

As of 2013 [update] , about 1,200 ferrets are thought to live in the wild. [41] These wild populations are possible due to the extensive breeding program that releases surplus animals to reintroduction sites, which are then monitored by USFWS biologists for health and growth. However, the species cannot depend just on ex situ breeding for future survival, as reproductive traits such as pregnancy rate and normal sperm motility and morphology have been steadily declining with time in captivity. [42] These declining markers of individual and population health are thought to be due to increased inbreeding, an occurrence often found with small populations or ones that spend a long time in captivity. [43] [44]

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

Katherine Kuehler Walters, &ldquoTurner, Babe Kyro Lemon [Black Ace],&rdquo Handbook of Texas Online, accessed May 24, 2021,

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Pulled Duck Buns

I came by here with a foodie friend to enjoy some of the great food we had been reading about. Some have said Black Hogg is like a cross between Animal & Ink. BH is located in Silver Lake on Sunset near Silver Lake Blvd.

This is a tapas style restaurant. We ordered sambul brocolini ($8) pork belly tacos w/ Fuji apple slaw ($10) Duck buns ($12) Bone marrow ($14) and octopus ($19). To wash it all down, we had a Calma rioja from Spain ($33). The wine was a nice medium bodied wine, with a clean finish to accompany our dishes.

The brocolini had a nice kick from the sambul, but otherwise was just OK. My friend didn't like the sourness from the lemon: 3 Stars. On the other hand, the tacos were very good and packed w/ meat. The pork belly was nicely seasoned, had a good spicy kick, and well executed in a taco: 4 Stars. I love duck , but BH's rendition of Peking duck was OK. I thought the price was high, and the bao was dry in the corners: 3 Stars. The bone marrow was the star of the evening. It was served on a bed of roasted corn w/ Hon shemiji mushrooms, and was meant to be eaten mixed. We asked for toasted bread and it was perfect: 5 Stars. There was no uni toast, so we ordered the octopus. It was prepared Indian style w/ chick peas & naan. Unfortunately, this dish was a disappointment. Although the octopus was tender, the combination was off and the price was very high: 2 Stars.

The ambiance is hipster w/ several tables, and a few seats at the bar: 4 Stars. The service was very good from our waiter Dave. The only miscue being the server took our bones away before we had a chance to scrape off all the marrow: 4 Stars.

I can see the comparison to Animal & Ink. However, the only dishes that matched up to either was the marrow and the tacos. As I said earlier, the remainder of the dishes were OK, or below acceptable. Lastly, although I think BH is a bit overpriced, I would come back to try other dishes (uni toast especially).

Funny story: My friend is the Traveling Foodie, and has a series of clips on local restaurants. However, I think her real theatrical talent is that she is able to arch her left eyebrow like The Rock - LOL.

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  • Alex P.
  • Los Angeles, CA
  • 40 friends
  • 33 reviews
  • 3 photos

Popcorn bacon!
Brussels Sprout Hash!
Pulled Duck Buns !
Buttery Lamb Burger!

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  • Oliver L.
  • Los Angeles, CA
  • 41 friends
  • 37 reviews
  • 4 photos

Let me start off by sayin that i have been wanting to try this place for a very long time. its been at the top of my list so expectations were very high. i think i overhyped myself so i felt a little bit disappointed.

With that being said, this place is still very good. Service was great and the staff is very friendly. The restaurant itself is alot smaller than i thought it was going to be, i dont know how they were able to do it during dinela.

As for parking, you can try to look for street parking or just valet your car which is located on the side, not the front of the restaurant.

Now onto the good stuff. the food. PORK BELLY TACOS! thats it. i would seriously go here and just get like 5 orders of this shit. i really regret not gettin more, its by far the best thing they have.

Since it was my first time i got other things as well just to try them out. The popcorn bacon is really good but I dont see it as being something i need to get everytime i go. Also got the Duck Buns , they were good but nothing special. I have def had better Duck Buns at a Chinese restaurant. The last thing i got was the Lamb Burger with fries. The burger was really good really juicy and had alot of flavors.

Moral of the story, dont mess around and just get ALOT of pork belly tacos.

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  • Hannah E.
  • East Hollywood, Los Angeles, CA
  • 1455 friends
  • 1638 reviews
  • 52 photos
  • Elite ’21

Why don't I ever see lamb belly on menus?

I see pork belly. All the time. Pork belly tacos. Crispy pork belly with basil. Pork belly ramen. But never lamb belly.

I'd never really thought about it before, but if I had, I'd probably have had to assume that there was something wrong or inedible or uncookable about lamb belly that kept it off restaurant tables everywhere. (Even though that doesn't really make sense.)

But apparently there is nothing that should keep lamb belly off the table, because Black Hogg's lamb belly with garlic cream and harissa sauce over yellow rice was indescribably good. It carried my whole experience and this whole rating all on its own. Its fat melted into its meat, like any well-cooked animal belly, and the whole thing was as gamey as mutton without its tendency to go tough. I literally squeaked when I put the first bite into my mouth. Covering my full mouth with one hand, I spastically gestured to the rest of it, mumbling 'TRY THIS' to my companion through a frenzy of chewing.

The first dish hadn't really excited me, and I was all ready to chalk Black Hogg up as sort of a poor man's Playground. This was the pulled duck buns , which looked just precisely like the first course of a Beijing Duck meal but were nowhere near as multifaceted. The duck was cooked too long and had lost all flavor and color, leaving it a grayish mass completely carried by the hoisin and sambal (undoubtedly out of a bottle, both of them).

(Oh, and I should mention before I get too far that if you don't drink alcohol, like me, avoid the grapefruit soda - it's like 10% juice or something and just an affront to fresh fruit juices everywhere.)

The second course, the bone marrow over shimeji mushrooms and corn, was visually striking, and certainly a fun experience, what with scooping the marrow into the salad with a giant spoon and licking the salt and spices off the outside of the bone (what are you looking at, hipsters? You don't think I should be gnawing on cow bones in public?) but it didn't taste quite as impressive as it looked. I'll give you that the corn was freshly chopped straight off of the ear, but it needed way more mushrooms and an overarching flavor other than 'salty oil + marrow'.

In addition to the lamb dish, I was also struck by how much I enjoyed the panna cotta, which can easily taste like a bowlful of milk. The way they drenched the raspberries in a strong vinaigrette and sprinkled the whole thing with wads of dried honey gave it all some texture and a tangy, fruity finish.

Overall, my initial 'slightly less exciting Playground' analysis isn't necessarily way off base, I don't think, but I'm going to give them well-deserved kudos for stopping the discrimination against lesser-known animal bellies.

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  • Shawn C.
  • Beaverton, OR
  • 21 friends
  • 191 reviews
  • 14 photos

4.5 stars. This place is busy, but get a reservation and come in for a delicious meal. Three of us arrived for a last-minute 9pm reservation and had minimal wait to get seated & orders in. Everything we tried was well seasoned and tasty, as far as my memory serves (give or take me having the munchies and wanting to eat five of every item). Some of the dishes were greasier than others, but in general everything was cooked properly, balanced, and served at a hot eating temperature. Without further ado, we had:

"Popcorn" Bacon = Bite-sized House-Made Bacon Morsels, Maple Crema
Pulled Duck Buns = Five Spice Duck Confit, Sesame Scallion Slaw, Sambal, Hoison
Pork Belly Tacos = Roast Heritage Pork Belly, Fuji Apple Slaw, Jalapeño Relish
53rd & 6th Lamb and Rice = Roast Lamb Belly, Jasmine Rice, Harissa Slaw, Garlic Cream
Roast Mushrooms on a Brioche Box = Hen of the Woods, Shimeji, Crimini Mushrooms, Brown Butter
Grilled Wagyu Steak = Snake River Farms Wagyu, Papaya Salad, Chili-Lime Fish Sauce (pretty sure we had mango instead of papaya, which suits me fine)

Service was not particularly attentive, but it was friendly enough when we did wave people down. I can forgive a few lapses given the solid food. Next time I'm in the area, it'll be an easy choice to return!

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  • Prair P.
  • Los Angeles, CA
  • 40 friends
  • 129 reviews
  • 80 photos

I loved everything about this place, and I would definitely recommend it - especially for a date. The atmosphere is laid back and the decor is simple and classy without being hoity-toity. I especially loved the vintage mirrors on the walls and the look of the bar!

The food!! We had the string beans, the brussel sprouts, popcorn bacon, kale salad, and the duck buns . They were all quite memorable, but the dishes that stood out to me the most were the string beans (I could eat those for days) and the duck buns , which were really something special and I wish I had eaten 10 more of them.

I had a ice cream sandwich for dessert, and it was perfect! I usually feel guilty about eating both ice cream AND cookies together (but ice cream sandwiches always trump guilty feelings) but this ice cream sandwich is not only worth the calories & sugar, but it isn't even very heavy at all! I was craving that cookie for 2 weeks after.

I'm looking forward to going back to try the uni toast, which is all over their Yelp reviews. and to gobble down some more of their other food.

Bottom line: veggies never tasted so good! Definitely eat here - and make sure to make a reservation because it can get packed!

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  • Sarah D.
  • Los Angeles, CA
  • 501 friends
  • 507 reviews
  • 60 photos

FINALLY GOT TO BLACK HOGG!! And its still as busy as ever. Got the last two seats at the bar around 6:30pm? I don't think they had anything available besides that till 9pm so they are still super popular - very small place so not too surprise they are always filled up. I would suggest making a reservation or getting there right when they open.

Bacon popcorn - obviously a must. It comes with a marshmallow like dipping sauce. The two things on there own are only okay but together - amazing!

Green bean - YUM. Not my usual veggie of choice but it had crushed hazelnuts on them so we gave it a go. Very happy we did.

The duck buns were good - a little dry and I wish they had more duck .

Lamb belly and coconut rice - star of the show! SPICEY. Like crazy mouth on fire but in a good way because I couldn't stop eating it. Its the coleslaw on top that has all the spice in it so move that to the side if you are a wuss.

Would def come back here for the lamb belly.

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  • Mendel L.
  • La Canada Flintridge, CA
  • 851 friends
  • 480 reviews
  • 182 photos

Great service! Tasty food! Wish it were a bit cheaper, but who doesn't?

We ordered a variety of their items and shared throughout the table.

Popcorn Bacon $8
Tasty but not as orgasmic as everyone else said it was. For the price and to get around 8-10 pieces it's not bad.

Brussel Sprout $8
These were also pretty yum. I think there was around 16 pieces

Brioche Box $16
This was AMAZING if you love mushrooms. We asked for extra bread to scoop up the soup and they toasted some baguette pieces for us for Free! Though gotta admit, for just mushrooms, this costs the same as the Lamb and Rice!

Pork Belly Tacos $10
2 very tasty tacos with well cooked pork belly and a tasty slaw on top!

Duck Buns $12
2 duck buns per order. Wasn't the biggest fan of pulled duck , felt it wasn't as moist/flavorful as it could've been. Not bad, but rather have gotten another order of the tacos!

Lamb and Rice $16
Very very yum. A must order.

Octopus $19
Very good as well.

Wagyu $26
Very tender flavorful steak. Very well priced for what it is! Must order.

Bottles of Candela Carro Tinto $24
One of the cheapest red's that Black Hogg offers, but even so it's a very tasty red!

Overall it was a great meal with great service. The restaurant is rather small and we were still able to do reservations from 7-9pm for a party of 11. We took up the whole middle of the restaurant. They also let us split the check on 10 different credit cards!

In other words, great place for groups if you're able to get a reservation!

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  • Joyce V.
  • Monterey Park, CA
  • 274 friends
  • 598 reviews
  • 2500 photos
  • Elite ’21

Another last minute dineLA dinner. I normally like to plan these in advance but this is just how it worked out this time. We arrived around 7:15 pm & found street parking on Sunset. We only had to walk a block. At Black Hogg all of the tables were packed but there were a couple of spots open at the bar. I asked the hostess what the wait for a table for 4 was. Next available was 10:00 pm. She said that we could sit at the bar & wait for our friends. She also said the group of girls at the end of the bar were finishing up with dessert so we could have dinner at the bar if we wanted but if there was a cancellation she could move us to a table. We grabbed a couple of beers while we waited. They have 6 craft beers on tap. Our friends arrived 10 minutes later & we gave them the rundown. They were O.K. w/ eating at the bar. Soon enough, the girls at the end of the bar finished & were on their way. We just slid on down. Our bartender was super nice but just as we were preparing to order, the hostess comes over to let me know that she can move us to a table. 3 of us were fine w/ eating at the bar but Mr. French decided he wanted to eat at the table. Majority does not rule in this group. We apologized to our friendly bartender but he says we can finish putting our order in. DineLA is best with a group of 4 so that you can try more things. as long as you have friends that don't mind sharing. Here's what we had in order of my preference by course:

Pork Belly Taco w/ roast heritage pork belly, Fuji Apple slaw & jalapeño relish. Wow! Thank goodness we ordered two orders of this one. I certainly could have eaten two orders of this one myself. Funny thing is, my husband & friends grabbed these off the plate before I could take a photo. So my favorite is not represented in my photos. : (

Pulled Duck Buns w/ Five Spice duck confit, sesame scallion slaw, Sambal & Hoisin. Delicious! I actually like this better than a traditional Peking Duck . Again, we ordered two of these & I could've eaten both of them myself but sharing is caring.

Garlic Scallion String Beans w/ sautéed string beans, garlic scallion vinaigrette & candied hazelnuts. These are the BEST green beans I've ever had. Cooked perfectly, still crunchy & seasoned nicely.

Kale Caesar made w/ Black Tuscan Kale, house dressing & croutons. Loved this take on Caesar salad.

Brussels Sprout Hash w/ twice cooked Brussels, Yukon Gold potatoes, bacon vinaigrette & a poached egg. Delicious.

Popcorn Bacon. I know I'm probably in the minority here but this was my least favorite although I love bacon.

Randy & I had the Buttery Lamb made w/ Superior Farms Colorado lamb, Plugra butter, Habanero onions, Roquefort Blue Cheese & fries. Very good although we thought the burger was a little salty due to the cheese.

My husband had the Lechon Asado Fries w/ Cuban style roast Heritage pork shoulder, Mojo de Ajo, onions, cilantro & house chicharron. He really enjoyed it.

Marc had the Octopus Chana Masala w/ Spanish octopus, chickpeas, fingerling potatoes & grilled naan. He was very happy with it.

Five Leches Bread Pudding w/ brioche, Brown butter apples, toasted pecans & topped w/ salty Vanilla Ricotta ice cream. Yum.

Cap'n Crunch Cookie Sandwich w/ salty Vanilla Ricotta ice cream. Yum.

Banana Butterscotch Custard w/ crushed Vanilla Wafers topped w/ whipped cream. Yum.

Service was great & everyone was so nice. We'll definitely be back.

Black Hogg Reopens Tonight with New Concept, ROOTS

In a chef’s world, there is often little time to reflect. Cooks are constantly moving forward with that night’s dinner or tomorrow’s preparation for the following service. The week-and-a-half in which Silver Lake’s Black Hogg closed for some interior design adjustments (including counter tiles, shelf space, hanging Edison bulbs, and a paint job) allowed chef Eric Park some precious, introspective moments regarding his culinary past. Reinvigorated from the temporary pause, Park will reveal a new concept called ROOTS at Black Hogg, which reopens tonight at 6 p.m.

The re-tooled menu will give diners an intimate look at the Korean, Mexican, and contemporary American influences that shaped the L.A.-born chef’s time growing up in Los Angeles, where the funk of fermentation and aroma of sizzling asada existed in close proximity.

“When I was growing up, our apartment building posted a sign that read PLEASE BE CONSIDERATE OF YOUR NEIGHBORS AND DO NOT COOK STRONG SMELLING FISH IN YOUR APARTMENT,” said Park in a statement. “Obviously, we were not living in the middle of Koreatown.”

Serial killer Robert Black described rape, torture and murder of child victims as 'theatre'

In a chilling new documentary a leading forensic psychiatrist who conducted a series of interviews with the Scottish child killer says he was 'beyond redemption'.

Scottish serial killer Robert Black described his sexual abuse and torture of young girls as being like a theatre performance, a chilling new television documentary has revealed.

The Scots murderer compared himself to an actor starring in a play when he carried out his horrific crimes.

Black made the claim to a leading forensic psychiatrist who conducted a series of interviews with him in prison.

The former delivery driver murdered four schoolgirls between 1981 and 1986.

He was found dead in his cell in Maghaberry high-security prison in Co Antrim in January 2016 aged 68.

Dr Richard Badcock said Black told him he blocked out memories of whether his victims had lived or died but remembered abusing them and compared it to theatre.

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Describing his meetings with Black, Dr Badcock said: "He was very unprepossessing physically, he was overweight, he was shy.

"He was not terribly intelligent but he had quite a lot of what you might think of as natural cunning.

"He didn&apost have lots of opportunities for conversations so he was quite happy to talk about himself.

"There were areas of his life that he was happy to talk about and areas of his life that he wasn&apost.

"The things that he didn&apost want to talk about very much were the offences.

"One thing he did say was he had no recollection of what happened to the victims in terms of whether they died or not.

"He said it was like a theatre. Like the curtains opening at the start of a play.

"What had gone on before the curtains opened he had no knowledge of. What happened after the curtains closed he had no recollection of - these were the areas where the girls were killed and the bodies disposed of.

"But he had some recollection of what happened in between."

A group of leading forensic psychologists studied the Scot&aposs crimes for a series on some of the country&aposs worst murderers called Making A Monster which is to be shown next month.

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They concluded that Black was driven to kill because of anger at the ill-treatment and abuse he suffered as a child.

Black, originally from Grangemouth, Stirlingshire, was brought up by foster parents and later spent time in care homes where it is thought he was sexually abused.

The experts also concluded that the killer could not have been &aposcured&apos and would have gone on to kill many more if he had not been caught.

In an audio recording of an interview conducted behind bars, Black complains that he was denied Christmas presents one year as a child.

He said: "I remember one Christmas I didn&apost get no Christmas presents because I had been bad.

"I got one present from somebody that lived out of town. It was a football.

"I can&apost remember what I had done like, you know.

"She says &aposSanta Claus isn&apost coming this year to you&apos. And he didn&apost."

Dr Badcock, who also conducted interviews with serial killer GP Harold Shipman, said: "Would he proudly describe himself as a serial killer? No he would not.

"He would describe himself as the unfortunate victim of life.

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"What he mostly wanted to get across was how badly he had been treated at various stages of life. That was his central mantra.

"It&aposs certainly clear that something very traumatic happened to him at a very early age which he never discussed, presumably in the form of sexual abuse.

"It was something that so disturbed him that he shut himself off from it completely, disassociated himself from it.

"Because he could never address it or deal with it, it was the thing that stopped from being able to develop along different lines.

"It had the effect of encouraging him to grow up feeling vulnerable, alienated and inadequate."

Dr Eric Cullen, a forensic psychologist, said: "He wasn&apost a monster. He was a product of that particular life.

"He couldn&apost have been treated. This was in his nature. This was what he was.

"I don&apost think he was retrievable and there&aposs no punishment sufficient to mark the magnitude of his crimes. He was beyond redemption."

Black was serving a number of life sentences when he died of a heart attack. In May 1994, he was convicted of kidnapping, raping and murdering three of his victims.

Susan Maxwell was 11 when abducted in 1982 near the border between Scotland and England.

Her body was gagged and bound and she was found 250 miles away in England.

His next victim was a girl aged five, Caroline Hogg, who was abducted from Portobello in Edinburgh in 1983 and her body was found 300 miles away.

Sarah Harper, aged 10, was abducted in 1986 and found dead in the River Trent near Nottingham.

In 2011 he was convicted of sexually assaulting and murdering nine-year-old Co Antrim schoolgirl Jennifer Cardy in 1981 and dumping her body in a dam.

The Making A Monster episode featuring Black will be shown on the Crime+Investigation channel on February 24 at 9pm.

Grady's BBQ: How North Carolina's only Black-owned whole hog barbecue joint survived the COVID-19 pandemic

DUDLEY, N.C. (WTVD) -- Grady's Barbecue has been owned by Steve and Gerri Grady, 86 and 76, since 1986 in Dudley, North Carolina. The iconic barbecue joint could have been lost this year, and with it a precious piece of North Carolina's tradition

Today, Grady's stands as one of North Carolina's few whole hog smokehouses, and currently the only one that is Black-owned.

The COVID-19 pandemic put the Gradys' lives at risk and could have made the restaurant one of the many closings of the past year.

Mr. Grady tested positive for COVID-19 in June and was hospitalized. His fever eventually broke and he returned home.

"It wasn't nothing but God intervening," Mrs. Grady said. "You read about (COVID), you hear about it, you try to be cautious, then bam! When you experience it, it's different."

The restaurant stayed closed until July, but reopened in time for the Grady's 34th anniversary.

Mr. Grady learned to cook whole hog barbecue from his father and grandfather, who cooked a couple pigs a year in the fall or winter for holidays and celebrations, the pits dug into the ground. Mrs. Grady learned to cook at 9 or 10 years old, she said, from her mother and grandmother and later her mother-in-law. The recipes might as well be written in smoke.

"This is cooking the old fashioned way," Mrs. Grady said. "This is all we've ever known. This is country. It's a dash of this and a dash of that. There are no measurements."

As the only Black-owned whole hog restaurant currently open in North Carolina, Grady's preserves the very roots of the state's barbecue history and traditions.

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Watch the video: Black Sabbath War Pigs (May 2022).


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